Friday, March 20, 2009

Memory Analysis, for real!

A bit ago, Rich over at HBGary was nice enough to provide me with a dongle for Responder Field Edition, so that I could take a look at it and work with it from an incident response perspective. Having that kind of access to that kind of tool is really pretty amazing, as it provides a perspective to the overall environment that you don't get through reviewing web sites and testimonials.

First, some quick background...if you haven't been by the redesigned HBGary site, go by and take a look. Also, be sure to add the Fast Horizon blog to your RSS feed. The Fast Horizon blog gives some interesting insight into technical aspects of the Responder product (i.e., Digital DNA, etc.) that you won't get even by working with the tool. Also, as I'm working with the Field Edition, I don't have access to Digital DNA, so I won't be able to comment on that.

Okay, to make things even better when using tools like Responder to perform memory analysis, Hogfly has started a memory snapshot project, and has posted a memory snapshot from a VM guest running Windows XP (part II is posted here), with actual malware running. Pretty cool, and a great idea at that! This not only provides access to memory dumps with something to actually look for, but it also provides a great example of why you'd want to dump memory in the first place!

I'll be taking a look at Hogfly's first memory snapshot (.vmem file) with Responder and Volatility, as the snapshot is of a Windows XP system. I won't be using Memoryze, as I downloaded the MemoryzeSetup.msi file and ran it several times, and had nothing installed. I tried specifying a path for the installation, as well as using the default path. I even tried re-downloading the MSI file. Nothing worked.

Responder Field Edition
Responder provides a very easy to use GUI interface for working with memory dumps or snapshots. You simply select the memory snapshot to import, select a few options for what to do during processing, maybe add some keywords to search for, and then you let the tool do its thing.

A couple of very interesting things that Responder will do is look for "keys and passwords" (a string search for components that might include passwords) as well as for "Internet History" or URLs. When locating both of these, the column display in Responder includes a field for the offset where the string is located; this is useful as you may be able to map something interesting to a location in memory to give that string some context. In reviewing the recovered URLs from Hogfly's memory snapshot, I found a LOT of Microsoft- and MSN.com-related entries, as well as some others, such as:

http://192.168.30.129/malware/
http://*:2869/
http://www.iec.ch
http://%s:%u http://[::1]:8080/

There are a number of others (too many to list here), and there were also references to tunes.com and musicblvd.com.

For incident response purposes, one of the things I really like about Responder is the ability to quickly get the memory snapshot open and locate the issue. In this case, for me, the "offending" process stood out like a sore thumb...svhost.exe, PID: 1824, with a command line of "C:\Windows\msagent\svhost.exe". From there, you can expand the tree listing for that process in order to view specific information about and from that process. For example, we can see that the process has a couple of open file handles, to include the "foo" user's TIF index.dat file, and that the process also has an open TCP socket from port 1059 to a remote IP address on port 9899. This information can be extracted quickly once the memory snapshot has been collected, and the information available can then be used to correlate with other information, such as network packet captures, firewall or network device/appliance logs, etc.

From an incident response perspective, Responder is a great tool to really get you started in quickly identifying issues. I would like to be able to dump the binary, if possible...I selected the process in the Processes tree view (left-most pane of the UI), right-clicked and selected Package, View Binary from the context menu...some dialog boxes flashed, but I didn't end up with a binary, nor did I get anything stating that I couldn't have it. This may be due to the fact that the memory pages for the process executable had been paged out; in cases such as this, using FastDump Pro would've been the way to create a memory snapshot, incorporating the pagefile, as well, providing a more complete picture.

Over all, however, Responder lets you very quickly process information in a graphical format, providing speed and agility for something for which just a couple of years ago, there was no real process or methodology at all available.

Addendum: I heard from Rich with respect to parsing strings from binaries with Responder, and its actually pretty simple. If you select a particular process in the Processes tree view, you then expand the process listing for the Modules (see the above image) and select the executable image, which is also listed as a module. Expanding that tree lets you see Bookmarks and Strings. So with a couple of mouse clicks, you can view the strings extracted from any particular binary. Similarly, viewing, analyzing, or saving a copy of the binary is simply a matter of right-clicking on the name of the EXE file in the Modules tree view, choosing Package, and selecting the option that you want (see figure).

Volatility
Analyzing the memory snapshot with Volatility was somewhat different, as Volatility is a purely command line interface (CLI) tool. However, that does not make Volatility any less powerful when it comes to memory analysis. I won't go through everything Volatility can do, as it's been discussed before (and is rather nicely documented), but suffice to say that I ran the following commands against the memory snapshot:

ident
datetime
pslist/psscan2
connections/connscan2
sockets
files
regobjkeys

The great thing about these commands is that they can be included in a batch file and run all at once, and finished off with tools such as JL's vol2html to tie everything together into a single report (examples here and here). Don't forget that you can also include other modules, such as malfind, moddump, or Moyix's Registry modules. JL's code is a great example of what you can do with these tools, showing the flexibility available through Volatility.

Correlating output like this can make it easier to identify suspicious processes. From there, once you identify a process of interest, you can then use the "procdump" and "memdmp" commands to collect as much of the executable image and process memory, respectively, as you can. In this case, the executable image data appears in the local directory as "executable.1824.exe" and the memory dump appears as "1824.dmp". You can then view the contents of these files in a hex editor, or simply extract the strings. When running the procdump command, however, I received a number of "Memory not accessible" responses, indicating that the memory pages had been paged out.

As you can see, various memory analysis tools have strengths and weaknesses, and should be considered just as they are...tools to do a job. Rather than advocating one specific tool, I'd advocate understanding and using them all. Responder is more OS-complete than some of the other available tools, while Volatility provides a level of granularity not seen in the other tools. At this point, if someone asked me, "which tool do you recommend...Responder, Volatility, or Memoryze", I'd have to say "yes".

Another thing to remember is that looking at these tools in isolation only provides part of the answer, and only taps a small portion of the power available to you as a responder. For example, throw F-Response EE and FEMC, and RegRipper into your toolkit, and you're really expanding your capabilities.

2 comments:

JL said...

Did you figure out what the issue with Memoryze was? I ran the installer, which just dumped all of the files under C:\Program Files\Mandiant\Memoryze

I thought at first nothing had happened, since it doesn't create a shortcut anywhere...

Keydet89 said...

Nope, never figured it out...although I do have an opportunity to try to install it again, this time on another system.

The system I tried to install it on already has Volatility and Responder installed...maybe there's some sort of interaction going on their at the API level that we're not seeing... ;-)