Wednesday, August 10, 2016


Data Exfil
A question that analysts get from time to time is "was any data exfiltrated from this system?"  Sometimes, this can be easy to determine; for example, if the compromised system had a web server running (and was accessible from the Interwebs), you might find indications of GET requests for unusual files in the web server logs.  You would usually expect to find something like this if the bad guy archived whatever they'd collected, moved the archive(s) into a web folder, and then issued a GET request to download the archive to their local system.  In many cases, the bad guy has then deleted the archive.  With no instrumentation on the system, the only place you will find any indication of this activity is in the web server logs.

However, for the most part, definitive determination of data exfiltration is almost impossible without the appropriate instrumentation; either having a packet sniffer on the wire at the time of the transfer, or appropriate endpoint agent monitoring process creation events (see the Endpoints section below) in order to catch/record command lines.  In the case of endpoint monitoring, you'd likely see the use of an archiving tool, and little else until you moved to the web server logs (given the above example).

Another area to look is the Background Intelligent Transfer Service, or "BITS".  SecureWorks has a very interesting blog post that illustrates one way that this native Windows service has been abused.  I highly suggest that if you're doing any kind of DFIR or threat hunting work, you do a good, solid read of the SecureWorks blog post.

I am not aware of any publicly-available tools for parsing the BITS qmgr0.dat or qmgr1.dat files, but you can use 'strings' to locate information of interest, and then use a hex editor from that point in order to get more specific information about the type of transfer (upload, download) that may have taken place, and it's status.  Also, be sure to keep an eye on those Windows Event Logs, as well.

Finding Bad
Jack Crook recently started a new blog, Finding Bad, covering DFIR and threat hunting topics.  As

Jack's most recent post on hunting for lateral movement is a good start, but IMHO, the difference in artifacts on the source vs the destination system during lateral movement needs to be clearly delineated.  Yeah, I may be pedantic, but from my perspective, there is actually a pretty huge difference, and that difference needs to be understood, for no other reason that because the artifacts on each system are different.

Adam recently posted a spreadsheet of various endpoint solutions that are's interesting to see the comparison.  Having detailed knowledge of one of the listed solutions does a level set with respect to my expectations regarding the others.

MAC Addresses in the Registry
I recently received a question from a friend regarding MAC addresses being stored in the Registry.  It turns out, there are places where the MAC address of a system is "stored" in the Registry, just not in the way you might think.  For example, running the RegRipper plugin, we see (at the bottom of the output) something like this:

Unique MAC Addresses:

I should also point out that the plugin, which is about 8 yrs old at this point, also might provide some information.

Registry Findings - 2012
The MAC Daddy - circa 2007

I ran across EventMonkey (wiki here) recently, which is a Python-based event processing utility.  What does that mean?  Well, from the wiki, that means "A multiprocessing utility that processes Windows event logs and stores into SQLite database with an option to send records to Elastic for indexing."  Cool.

This definitely seems like an interesting tool for DFIR analysts.  Something else that the tool reportedly does is process the JSON output from Willi's EVTXtract.

As I've mentioned before, later this month I'll be presenting at ArchC0N, discussing some of the misconceptions of ransomware.  I ran across an interesting blog post recently regarding, Fixing the Culture of Infosec Presentations.  I can't say that I fully agree with the concept behind the post, nor with the contents of blog post.  IMHO, the identified "culture" is from too narrow a sample of's unclear as to which "infosec conferences" this discussion applies.

I will say this...I stopped attending some conferences a while back because of the nature of how they were populated with speakers.  Big-named, headliner speakers were simply given a time slot, and in some cases, did not even prepare a talk.  I remember one such speaker using their time slot to talk about wicca.

At one point in the blog post, the author refers to a particular presenter who simply reads an essay that they've written; the author goes on to say that they prefer that.  What's the point?  If you write an essay, and it's available online, why spend your time reading it to the audience, when the audience is (or should be) fully capable of reading it themselves?

There's another statement made in the blog post that I wanted to comment on...

We have a force field up that only allows like .1% of our community to get on the stage, and that’s hurting all of us. It’s hurting the people who are too afraid to present. It’s hurting the conference attendees. And it’s hurting the conferences themselves because they’re only seeing a fraction of the great content that’s out there.

I completely agree that we're missing a lot of great content, but I do not agree that "we have put up a force field"; or, perhaps the way to look at it is that the force field is self-inflicted.  I have seen some really good presentations out there, and the one thing that they all have in common is that the speaker is comfortable with public speaking.  I say "self-inflicted" because there are also a lot of people in this field who are not only afraid to create a presentation and speak, they're also afraid to ask questions, or offer their own opinion on a topic.

What I've tried to do when presenting is to interact with the audience, to solicit their input and engage them.  After all, being the speaker doesn't mean that I know everything...I can't possibly know or have seen as much as all of us put together.  Rather than assume the preconceptions of the audience, why not ask them?  Admittedly, I will sometimes ask a question, and the only sound in the room is me breathing into the mic...but after a few minutes folks tend to start loosing up a bit, and in many cases,  a pretty good interactive discussion ensues.  In the end, we all walk away with something.

I also do not believe that "infosec presentations" need to be limited to the rather narrow spectrum described in the blog post.  Attack, defend, or a tool for doing either one.  There is so much more than that out there and available.  How about something new that you've seen (okay, maybe that would part of "defend"), or a new way of looking at something you've seen?  Want a good example?  Take a look at Kevin Strickland's blog post on the Evolution of the Samas Ransomware.  At the point where he wrote that blog post, SecureWorks (full disclosure, Kevin and I are both employed by SecureWorks) had seen several Samas ransomware cases; Kevin chose to look at what we'd all seen from a different perspective.

There are conferences that have already gone to taking at least some of the advice in the blog post. For example, the last time I attended a SANS360 presentation, there were 10 speakers, each with 6 minutes to present.  Some timed their presentations down to the second, while others seemed to completely ignore the 6 minute limit on presentations.  Even so, it was great to see a speaker literally remove all of the fluff and focus on one specific topic, and get that across.


James Habben said...

Harlan, I agree with your 'self-inflicted' point. I have to say though, that I have been in some presentations that *would have* been really great but the speaker did not seem to make any attempts of good public speaking. I am really tolerant and love to learn new things, but some people make these talks very difficult to sit through.

My advice to people:
Don't shy away from a chance to stand in front of people to talk about something you have spent time researching. It helps you and it helps the audience. You do need to do a little research and work on public speaking or you may find yourself not being accepted for future speaking sessions. Conferences have to respond to attendee reviews, and unfavorable reviews of a speaker don't look good on you.

If you don't know where to go, ask someone who does speaking already. More than likely, the people you see speaking are up there because they want to give back to the community that they have learned from. I can only speak for myself, but I imagine that person would probably be very open to mentoring a few people on speaking. Don't be afraid to reach out, but also be prepared to do some work.

H. Carvey said...


...some people make these talks very difficult to sit through.

Agreed. I've been in some of those presentations, and decided that rather than sit through the rest of it, I'd either catch the slides, or read about it online.

If you don't know where to go, ask someone who does speaking already.

That requires a cultural change in the community...asking for help.

Mari DeGrazia said...


I agree with you that it is a "self inflicted" force field. I wore my own fear of public speaking down by practicing just as James stated. Some ideas for anyone interested in taking this approach - small Meetup groups in your area. Local IT "breakfast" groups. There are a lot of retirement communities in Arizona, and they loved to hear about what forensics is. Although the talks were more of a Forensics 101, it was a great way to get practice and get used to being in front of an audience. Some cities also have something called "Toastmasters" ( I've never went, but I have heard great things about it.