That's a good question.
You go into work every day, sit down at your desk, log in...but who actually "owns" the systems and network that you're using? Is it you, your employer...or someone else?
Anyone who's been involve in this industry for even a short time has either seen or heard how threat actors will modify an infrastructure to meet their needs, enabling or disabling functionality (as the case may be) to cover their tracks, make it harder for responders to track them, or to simply open new doors for follow-on activity.
Cisco (yes, *that* Cisco) was compromised in May 2022, and following their investigation, provided a thorough write-up of what occurred. From their write-up:
"Once the attacker had obtained initial access, they enrolled a series of new devices for MFA and authenticated successfully to the Cisco VPN." (emphasis added)
Throughout the course of the engagement, the threat actor apparently added a user, modified the Windows firewall, cleared Windows Event Logs, etc. Then, later in the Cisco write-up, we see that the threat actor modified the Windows Registry to allow for unauthenticated SYSTEM-level access back into systems by setting StickyKeys. What this means is that if Cisco goes about their remediation steps, including changing passwords, but misses this one, the threat actor can return, hit a key combination, and gain SYSTEM-level access back into the infrastructure without having to enter a password. There's no malware involved...this based on functionality provided by Microsoft.
Remember..the Cisco write-up states that the activity is attributed to an IAB, which means that this activity was likely intended to gain and provide access to a follow-on threat actor. As a result of response actions taken by the Cisco team, that follow-on access has been obviated.
On 11 Aug 2022, the SANS Internet Storm Center included this write-up regarding the use of a publicly available tool called nsudo. There's a screen capture in the middle of the write-up that shows a number of modifications the threat actor makes to the system, the first five of which are clearly Registry modifications via reg add. Later there's the use of the Powershell Mp-Preference module to enable Windows Defender exclusions, but I don't know if those will even take effect if the preceding commands to stop and delete Windows Defender succeeded. Either way, it's clear that the threat actor in this case is taking steps to modify the infrastructure to meet their needs.
It doesn't stop there; there is a great deal of native functionality that threat actors can leverage to modify systems to meet their needs. For example, it's one thing to clear Windows Event Logs or delete web server log files; as we saw with NotPetya in 2017, those logs can still be recovered. To take this a step further, I've seen threat actors use appcmd.exe to disable IIS logging; if the logs are never written, they can't be recovered. We've seen threat actors install remote access tools, and install virtual machines or hard drives from which to run their malicious software, because (a) the VMs are not identified as malicious by AV software, and (b) AV software doesn't "look inside" the VMs.
So what? What does all this mean?
What this means is that these modifications can be detected and responded to early in the attack cycle, inhibiting or even obviating follow-on activity (ransomware deployment?). When I was researching web shells, for example, I kept running into trouble with Windows Defender; no matter how "esoteric" the web shell, if I didn't disable Defender before downloading it, Defender would quite literally eat the web shell! Other tools do a great job of detecting and quarantining web shells, and even more identify them. That's a means of initial access, so detecting and quarantining the web shell means you've obviated the rest of the attack and forced the threat actor to look for another means, AND you know someone's knocking at your door!