Monday, January 22, 2024
Lists of Images
There're a lot of discussions out there on social media regarding how to get started or improve yourself or set yourself apart in cybersecurity, and lot of the advice centers around doing things yourself; setting up a home lab, using various tools, etc. A lot of this advice is also centered around pen testing and red teaming; while it's not discussed as much, there is a lot you can do if you're interested in digital forensics, and the cool thing is that you don't have to "set up a home lab" to fully engage in most of it. All you need is a way to download the images and any tools you want, to a system to do the work on.
Fortunately, there are a number of sites where you can find these images, to practice doing analysis, or to engage in tool testing. Also, many of these sites are on lists...I've developed a list of my own, for example. Amongst the various available lists, there's most assuredly going to be duplication, so just be aware of that going in. That being said, let's take a look at some of the lists...
posted a list of publicly available images, and Brett Shavers followed up by sharing a DFIR Training link of "test" images.
Dr. Ali Hadi has a list of challenge images (he graciously allowed me to use one of them in Investigating Windows Systems), as well as a blog with some very valuable posts.
While "test" and CTF images are a great way to practice using various tools, and even developing new techniques, they lack the fossilization of user and system activity seen in real-world images. There's not a great deal that can be done about that; suffice to say that this is just something that folks need to be aware of when working with the images. It's also possible within the limited scope of the "incident" to develop not just threat intel, but also discern insights into the threat actor; that is, to observe human behavior rendered from digital forensics.
Many of the CTF images will be accompanied by a list of questions that need to be answered (i.e., the flags), few of which are ever actually asked for by customers, IRL. I've seen CTFs with 37 or even 51 questions, and across 25 yrs of DFIR experience, I've never had customers ask more than 5 questions, with one or two of them being duplicates.
The point is that CTF images are a great place to start, particularly if you take more "real world" approach to the situation and define your own goals. "Is this system infected with malware? If so, how did this happen, what did the malware do, and was any data stolen as a result?"
It's also a great idea to do more than just answer the questions, but to also go beyond. For example, in the write up of your findings, did you consider control efficacy? What controls were in place, did they work or not, and what controls would you recommend?
I once worked a case where the endpoint was infected due to a phishing email and the customer responded that this couldn't be the case, because they had a package specifically designed to address such things on their email gateway. However, the phishing email had gotten on the system because the user accessed their personal email via a browser, bypassing the email gateway all together.
Can you recommend controls or system configuration changes that may have inhibited or even obviated the attack/infection? What controls either on the network, or on the endpoint itself may have had an impact on the attack?
What about detections? How would you detect this malware or activity on future cases? Can you write a Yara or Sigma rule that would address the attack at any point? Is there one data source that proved to be more valuable than others, something you can clearly delineate as, "...if you see this, then the attack succeeded..."?
What can you tell about the "attacker", as a person? Was this a human operated attack, and if so, what insights can you develop about the attacker from your DF analysis? Hours of operations, capabilities, situational awareness are all aspects you can look at. Were there failed attempts to log in, run commands, or install applications, or did the attacker seem to be prepared and good to go when they got on the box? What insights can be rendered from your analysis, and are there any gaps that would shed more light on what was happening?
Finally, set up a Github site or blog, and share your experience and findings. Write up a blog post, a series of blog posts, or upload a document to a Github repo, and invite others to review, and ask questions, make comments, etc.
Posted by H. Carvey at 8:38 PM